Tuesday, September 15, 2015

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I don't think I every mention this, but my cat Ivy die the month I graduated high school. Three years went by so fast; I'm 22yrs old now. Went to collage, transfer schools, drop out, was a bum on my parent's couch for awhile, join the navy, did two years of my four contract, went back home, got a job (min wage), and brought a car... plan on moving back to Texas before this year is over too.
I have nothing else to say
Still not sure what to do with my life though
Oh! I'm female and my name is Marisa    see me as zeppelin4790 or FoxCatGirl on YouTube and FoxCatGirl on Disqus

The Role of Enzymes

Cells are possibly the smallest chemical factories in the world and yet they are exquisitely efficient and productive. They build chemical compounds (anabolism) from imported raw materials and break down larger molecules (catabolism) to access the necessary elements and energy to help maintain proper function. Cellular chemical processes are referred to as metabolism.

Metabolic reactions require a great amount of energy to take place (activation energy or EA). One way cells manage metabolic reactions is through the presence of enzymes. Enzymes are a type of protein that helps control and manage cell metabolism by making chemical reactions happen more efficiently than if the cell functioned without them. Enzymes lower the activation energy normally required for chemical reactions to take place.

Enzymes compounds are three-dimensional molecules that have special bonding areas called active sites. At the active site of some enzymes, large molecules are broken into smaller molecules (catabolism). Other enzymes bond small molecules together to make larger compounds (anabolism). The molecules and enzymes metabolizes are known as substrates.

The shape of an enzyme's active site is matched to the shape of the molecule it metabolizes. The substrate bonds to the active site and the enzyme molecule firms up the attachment. If possible, take a moment to shake hands with someone. The way hands fit together and firm up in a hand shake is similar to how an enzyme-substrate complex bonds. This is called an "induced fit."

Enzymes function best in specific conditions; environmental factors within the cell can affect how well an enzyme functions. High temperatures can denature (break down) an enzyme, changing its shape. Most enzymes work best in environments where pH range is 6 - 8. Higher or lower values in cells negatively affect enzyme function and thus cell function. An exception is digestive enzymes in the human stomach, which work best in pH 2. Some enzymes work only in the presence of two other type of compounds, cofactors (such as zinc or iron) and coenzymes (such as vitamins). Other compounds inhibit enzyme function by either blocking the active site (competitive inhibitor) or bonding to the enzyme and changing its shape (noncompetitive inhibitor).

Enzymes are often referred to as catalysts because they increase efficiency in chemical reactions without being affected. Because of enzymes, cells can manage millions of chemical reactions per second without breaking a sweat. Because of enzymes, cells can harvest energy and raw materials from the food you eat to build a better you.

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Organic Compounds

1. What is a organic compound?
      contains a carbon-hydrogen bond Examples: glucose, methane
2. What is an inorganic compound?
      Does not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond Examples: carbon dioxide, water
3. What is the most important inorganic compound?
4. What is the monomer (building block) of carbohydrates?
5. What is the function of carbohydrates?
     Provide energy
6. What is the carbon: hydrogen: oxygen ratio of carbohydrates?
7. What are some examples of monosaccharide?
       Glucose, fructose, galactose
8. What are some examples of polysaccharides?
        Surcrose, starch, cellulose
9. What elements make up lipids?
        C, H, O
10. What are the functions of lipids?
        Hormones, make up the cell membrane, energy storage
11. Are lipids soluble or insoluble in water?
      Based on your previous answer, what does that tell you about lipid polarity?
      Lipids are nonpolar
12. How are lipids classified?
        Saturated or unsaturated
13. What are some examples of lipids?
         Fats oils. waxes, steroids
14. What molecules make up lipids?
         Glycerol and fatty acids
15. What is the monomer of proteins?
        Amino Acids
16. What are the functions of proteins?
        Proper body function
17. What is an enzyme?
         Proteins that control the rate of chemical reactions
18. What are some examples of proteins within the body?
       Muscles, hair, cartilage, nails
19. What are the functions of nucleic acids?
        Store genetic info, make proteins
20. What is the monomer for nucleic acids?
21. What is a nucleotide made of?
         Sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
22. What are two examples of nucleic acids?
         DNA and RNA

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